The Eldin Volcano area is hot, in fact too hot for Link's wooden shield to handle. Before you head off into the red zone, swing by the Skyloft Bazaar and pick up an Iron Shield from the merchant. Entering into the Volcano area, be aware of lava, as misplaced jumps will usually end with Link getting burned. A helpful Mogma helps Link understand bomb flowers, which are used to clear some rubble from the path ahead (be aware that the right cave contains a giant ChuChu, so don't blow it open unless you'd like a fight!). There's also a small tunnel you can roll a bomb into, once clear you'll find 5 Rupees inside.
You'll soon encounter your first Pyrup, little crab like creatures hiding in pockets in the wall, breathing out fire. Get used to rolling bombs into their little caves, while those hiding in shells can have a bomb either tossed or rolled into their carapaces, blowing them up from insider. Proceed forward and right at first, wrapping around to get the piece of heart visable from beside the lava-moated cave entrance. Then return back down to where a bridge made of spines waits. Roll a bomb across the bridge to detonate the plug, letting the lava flow out and getting Link inside this cave.
Drop down into the cave. Note that there's a few platforms on the way down, one with a chest, another with a goddess cube. Use the air funnel at the front of the cave to keep returning to the surface, then jump back in to collect up all the goodies.
Ahead, a Mogma complains about all the Moblins who've invaded the cave. Quickly rush ahead and kick their asses, taking care to hit the one camping up on the scaffolding on the right. The impressed Mogma will hand link the Digging Mitts. Link can now dig anywhere there's a piece of soil with an X on it. Beside the Mogma you'll find a burst of air hidden beneath one. Dig it up and proceed forward.
First go straight, ascending a ladder and defeating some Moblins found there. Three holes in the wall are next to this tiny Moblin village. Take the middle one and slide towards a chest with some Eldin Ore. To the right will be another vent to dig up, and some rupees to be found on a ledge above.
Return to the first air vent you dug up and now bank right. Use rolling bombs to defeat any pesky Pyrups, and also use a bomb to blow up a noticable crack in a wall at the back, with a silver rupee (worth 100 rupees!) as your reward. Proceed through the exit to your right, digging up a vent back to the surface.
From here, proceed across the bridge, meeting the stranger in black for the first time. You'll find a few places that can be blasted to return easier to the front of the stage, so take care to bomb any of these rocky collections as you go.
Soon you'll come to a large sandy hill. Use Link's dash to get to one of the wooded platforms, then go left over to a little digging area. Roll a bomb from here down the slope to open up another passage back, then again sprint to the top of the hill. Defeat the moblins here, especially the one atop a wooden tower which must be bombed, turning it into a bridge. Before you leave, bomb the rocks found between the two shacks in order to find the Thrill Digger minigame.
Soon you'll come to yet another giant hill. Same as before, rush to the top, taking a break on the wooden platforms and avoiding the rocks coming your way. Climb up towards the mountain summit right after a Moblin has tossed his rock, then defeat the red bastards and get ready to hunt down the keys to the Earth Temple.
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